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By Coulter H. George

How did old Greek convey that an occasion happened at a specific time, for a definite length, or inside of a given timeframe? the reply to those questions is determined by numerous stipulations - the character of the time noun, the annoying and element of the verb, the actual old interval of Greek within which the writer lived - that current reports of the language don't take sufficiently into consideration. This e-book as a result examines the situations that govern using the genitive, dative, and accusative of time, in addition to the proper prepositional structures, essentially in Greek prose of the 5th century BC throughout the moment century advert, but in addition in Homer. whereas the focal point is on advancements in Greek, translations of the examples, in addition to an absolutely glossed precis bankruptcy, make it available to linguists attracted to the expression of time often.

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14) (9) καὶ τὸ ταραχθῆναι δὲ ἐν τῇ17νυκτὶ πολὺ μεῖζόν ἐστι πρᾶγμα ἢ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ καὶ δυσκαταστατώτερον And confusion at evening is an even bigger deal and more durable to place correct than it truly is throughout the day (X. Cyr. five. three. forty three) In (8), the time nouns in either temporal expressions are also specified through μέσος, a function unprecedented with the genitive of time. maybe Xenophon selected ἐν as by some means extra suitable with a modifier pinning down a selected time of the day and season. instance (9) isn't the same as the modal examples of τῆς ἡμέρας in that ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ isn't really associated as syntactically heavily with ἐν τῇ νυκτί as within the passages with the genitive (where one typically finds καὶ ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτός, οὔτε ἡμέρας οὔτε νυκτός, and the like). Given the presence of a comparative, the prepositional building could have been used to elucidate the position of the noun, as τῆς νυκτός in advance of μεῖζον might have been misunderstood as a genitive of comparability. With the limitative expressions, although, the (less universal) buildings with the genitive don't seem to percentage any universal characteristics that set them off opposed to people with ἐν. In Thucydides, the genitive was once extra universal with destiny time reference, ἐν with prior time reference, yet this development isn't visible in Xenophon, the place there are a number of examples of the prepositional development enhancing destiny (or destiny excellent) verbs (HG 1. four. 12, An. 1. five. sixteen, 1. 7. 18, Cyr. three. three. 29). What distinguishes those 4 examples, even if, from the 2 examples of the genitive of time with the long run are the modifiers of the time noun: in all 4 examples with ἐν, the time noun is modified by way of a demonstrative (1× each one τῇδε, ταύταις, 2× ταύτῃ), whereas people with the genitive of time are modified via extra prototypical limitative modifiers (ὀλίγων, πέντε). certainly, the 17 this text is passed over in a few MSS. 127 ex p re s s i o ns of ti m e : s t y le , ge n re , a n d di a c h ro n y genitive of time of ἡμέρα is rarely modified by way of a demonstrative, whereas the limitative buildings of this noun with ἐν have a demonstrative 8 out of twenty occasions. of those, the 4 pointed out above, simply because they happen with destiny time reference (and in 3 of the 4, with a negative), are well-signposted as limitative. however the different 4 happen with past-tense verbs and are available slightly in the direction of the punctual type:18 (10) καὶ ἀπέθανον αὐτῶν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ περὶ τριακοσίους And approximately 300 of them died on that day (HG four. 6. eleven) (11) καὶ πάντες δὲ οἱ στρατιῶται ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ πολλὰ τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἐκ τῶν χωρίων ἐλάμβανον And the entire solders on that day took many offers from the nation-state (HG four. five. five) at the one hand, there are strong grounds for contemplating either (10) and (11) limitative structures. In either, a number of occasions happen inside of a period of time, as signaled through the numeral τριακοσίους in (10) and the modifier πολλά and the imperfect ἐλάμβανον in (11). at the different, it isn't one of these nice step from passages like those to these with the punctual dative of time: in translation, at any cost, the punctual English preposition on seems to be to paintings most sensible.

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