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By Donald Kagan

In the fourth and ultimate quantity of his magisterial heritage of the Peloponnesian struggle, Donald Kagan examines the interval from the destruction of Athens' Sicilian excursion in September of 413 B.C. to the Athenian hand over to Sparta within the spring of 404 B.C. via his examine of this final decade of the warfare, Kagan evaluates the functionality of the Athenian democracy because it confronted its so much severe problem. while, Kagan assesses Thucydides' interpretation of the explanations for Athens’ defeat and the destruction of the Athenian Empire.

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As a substitute, he should still permit the 2 powers every one to regulate its personal area in order that the king may possibly consistently use one aspect opposed to the opposite that will hassle him. The wisest , most cost-effective, and safest path will be "to put on the Greeks out, one opposed to the opposite. ",6 Alcibiades looked as if it would think that the Persians had it of their strength to finish the battle speedy in the event that they selected: Tissaphernes may possibly rent extra Greek forces. however it is way from transparent that even major numbers of extra forces might have helped. occasions had proven and may proceed to teach that victory required a defeat of the Athenian army, and such defeat relied on well-trained crews of rowers. we've got "8. forty seven. [ . This 'passage appears to be like one of many most powerful in aid of the idea that Alcibiades used to be an immense resource of knowledge for Thucydides in e-book eight. See Brunt, REG LXV ( [ ninety five 2), ]2-8 1 . "8. forty five . 2 • 248. 29. 2 ; forty five. 2 . "8,45 , 3-5· 268,46. [-2. seventy six the autumn OF THE ATHENIAN EMPIRE no cause to think that Greek oarsmen have been to be had who have been larger than these already in use. the second one gadget named through Alcibiades is superb: to name within the Phoenician fleet. Thucydides has him converse of "the Phoenician ships that he used to be preparing," yet no prior males­ tion has been made from the sort of ships. most likely, there have been a few speak previous of bringing them into the Aegean, which Thucydides didn't point out. possibly the desire of gaining their aid will help to account for Chalcideus' attractiveness of so one-sided a treaty. even if, we needs to ask no matter if the promise of a Phoenician fleet had any fact for the time being. a few doubt has been expressed that this type of fleet ex­ isted. > 7 yet Thucydides asserts its truth firmly, and we haven't any cause to doubt him. >8 no matter if Tissaphernes ever meant to exploit it within the Aegean can be mentioned lower than, >9 yet within the early iciness of four 1 2/ I I the Phoenician ships have been basically no longer prepared to be used. within the brief run, a minimum of, Alcibiades' moment recommendation desirable the satrap good. Alcibiades' final idea was once that Tissaphernes should still abandon his alliance with Sparta and draw towards Athens. He argued that the Athenians, as working towards imperialists, might don't have any hesitation in aban­ doning the Greek towns at the continent whereas conserving keep watch over of the ocean and the islands in it for themselves. they might be "more appropriate companions in empire. "JO The Spartans, nonetheless, had come as liberators of the Greeks, and they'd rarely abandon their freedom to the Persians once they have been unwilling to depart them within the palms of alternative Greeks. they wouldn't stop to be a risk till they have been got rid of. Alcibiades' recommendation, accordingly, used to be that Tissa­ phernes should still "first, put on out each side, then decrease Athenian strength up to attainable, then eventually, force the Peloponnesians from his land. " J I those arguments do not need been persuasive. They pictured the Spartans as easy idealists, completely devoted to the reason for freedom and to their allies, regardless of the price.

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